One of the most important regular, complex and physiological processes from the beginning to the end of life is bone regeneration which can occur in bones at every part of the body. There are three biological principles in bone regeneration including osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. In oral surgery treatments of dental implantation, infection, tumor resection, edentulism of the jaws, and skeletal abnormalities, bone regeneration has key importance. Lack of enough bone materials in implantation, for instance, may cause severe clinical problems such as tooth shifting, infection, or even tooth loss. Bone grafting is a method to regenerate the bone loss and is used to increase the prognosis and success of dental treatments. Based on the mode of action, there are four classes of grafting materials. Autologous grafts (Autografts) concluded form fundamentals of the emberyological characteristics site of origin. Osteoconductive materials (Allografts) are similar to Autografts with a difference that they are harvested from an individual other than the one receiving the graft. Similarly, heterologous grafts (Xenografts) have bovine or equine origin. However, alloplastic grafts, are synthetic bone regenerating materials and can be tuned to provide diverse biomechanical properties. This diversity often confuses dentists for selecting the proper material for dental treatments. In this paper, recent developments in this class of materials are reviewed and their characteristics on prognosis of treatment are discussed.